Once you install Node and NPM you have to choose a front-end framework to work with, the main players these days are Angular (1 or 2, which are completely different frameworks), React, and Vue.js.
From there you’ll need to decide whether you’ll want to support ECMA-Script 6 (or the newer version 7) and while most modern browsers now support 6, older ones don’t, so you’ll need to use a build tool like babel which can transpile ECMA-Script to something that all browsers can recognize.
From there you’ll need to decide whether to use standard CSS stylesheets, Inline styling, LESS Stylesheets, SASS stylesheets, or Stylus, each with their own pros and cons.
But all of this thrown together won’t just work, you’ll need a build tool to translate your code into something all browsers can understand. The main ones are Webpack and Browserify.
From there, why not automate your build process and build a task manager? Gulp or Bower can help you with that.